Revit 3D Slice Technique. Post 2 in series “Revit with an Accent”

When studying or documenting a Revit model it is often useful to see just a small portion in 3D.

section3d-181x300Here is an easy way to do it

1. Make a section in a desired location
2. Orient default 3D view to the new section
3. Rotate and adjust as desired, then give it a name

Here is a video tutorial I have recorded. It may take some time to load, depending on your connection speed.

I wish this technique cold be used with split sections as well! Perhaps this feature should be added to the wish list?

Comments are appreciated, as usual

Revit Annotations. Post 1 in series “Revit with an Accent”

I am beginning a new series about Revit. I should probably change the name of the website now to include BIM…

Many Revit users have difficulties working with annotations which appear in multiple views. Particularly with room tags or levels, grids and sections.

It is important to remember that a room in Revit is an object in the model, similar to physical objects like walls, floors and furnishings. The room tag contains information about this object which is the same no matter which view we use to look at it. This includes not only plan views but also room schedules (just another view of the model)

Levels, grids and sections are not physical objects, but they are used by Revit to drive model geometry. Even though we usually think about them as annotations, they have a 3D property and moving them anywhere may affect the whole model. However, the appearance of levels, grids and sections could be different in every view.

The following video tutorial explains how to work with annotations which appear in multiple (not necessarily dependent) views. It may take some time to load, depending on your connection speed.

This time I recorded the video with voice narration.

I appreciate you feedback.

More Revit tutorials will be posted soon

AU 2008

As always, it was a great conference. A lot of learning opportunities, “aha! moments” and productive discussions.

I am very happy and proud to have received high rating for my class this year at the Autodesk University.

Here is a link to my class: https://au.autodesk.com/?nd=class&session_id=3224

Caution: I am not a native English speaker and have an accent, so if that annoys you, please turn the sound off and follow with the handouts. I hate to listen to my own recordings…

Alternatively, browse my “AutoCAD Cleanup posts”, I try to keep these things up-to-date.

Here are some pictures:

We are about to start
We are about to start
Class is full: standing (or floor) room only
Class is full: standing (or floor) room only
I need all tools I can get (and a third hand)
I need all tools I can get (and a third hand)
Class is over. See you next year!
Class is over. See you next year!

Reference Manager. Post 15 in series “AutoCAD Cleanup”

Using Reference Manager to re-link data set.

Scenario: You received a set of files on CD. The folder structure conforms to your company standard, but when you open plot files, XREFs are not found. You need to re-link all XREFs.

refman1

  • Copy the CD contents to a local drive and examine its folder structure.
  • Start by figuring out which files are intended to be the plot-able sheet files. This is the hardest part. You can use the transmittals, printouts, thumbnail images and/or any other means at your disposal. Sometimes you can guess from the folder structure or the file name. In this example it looks like all the plot sheets should be in a discipline specific subfolder of the plot folder.
  • Once you have a working assumption of which files are the plot sheets, you can begin solving the puzzle. Start Reference Manager.

refman2

  • Add the sheet files to be analyzed. I always work in batches based on plot file locations. You will be asked if you want to add all XREFs that are attached to the drawings being added. If you select “Yes”, then all nested XREFs will be added, and it can get large and confusing very quickly. In addition, you can also encounter circular referencing. When dealing with large sets, it is easier to process one level of nesting at a time by answering “No” and adding XREFs for processing later.

refman3

  • The Reference Manager interface has two views.

refman4

  • First, view the List by Drawing view to find out if any drawings are “broken”. In List by Drawing view, the left pane shows a hierarchical data structure with all resource files listed per drawing. If any of the XREFs or other resources are not found the drawing icon is crossed by a red line. In the right pane you can see all the needed resources. You can sort them any way you want. (by type, status, saved path, found path or any other column).

refman5

  • Now let’s attempt to repair all broken links. Change to the List by Reference Type view. Select XREFs in the left pane. Sort the right pane by status.

refman6

  • The missing XREFs saved path points to the P: drive. But your refman7system does not have a P: drive. To remedy this situation and make your data set portable, you need to convert the full path to a relative path. Looking at the folder structure and saved path you can guesstimate that the XREFs should be in the discipline specific folder under the ref folder.
  • The path is relative to the location of the parent (host) file. But in this batch all plot files reside in the same folder. Select all XREFs with identical saved path. Click on Edit Selected Paths, and then change the path. To get from the location of the host file to the location of the XREFs, you need to go two levels up the folder tree, then go down to the \ref\arch folder.

refman8

refman9

  • You guessed right, and the status of the XREFs changed to refman10Resolved with a pencil logo (pencil-in feature) indicating that the change is not yet applied. Click on Apply Changes to write the new paths into the host files. The status changes to Resolved.
  • Process the rest of the files in groups based on the location of the host file and saved paths. If the path is not resolved for loaded XREF (open the host file to check if it is loaded) and you can’t find the file in any folder, you simply do not have it. I usually click on Export Report at this time, and examine host files to see if a missing XREF can be safely detached or whether I need to hunt them down.
  • If you have any image references, their re-pathing is identical to re-pathing for XREFs.
  • You do not need to worry about Plot Configurations because your plotters/printers are different anyway.
  • Missing Plot Styles will result in problems with plot line thickness and colors, but in a pinch you can try Monochrome.ctb or Monochrome.stb
  • If there are “not found” Fonts and Shapes, try to purge everything, and then run the reference manager report again. If the font is still not found and you can’t get it, AutoCAD will use the substitute font. Alternatively, you may want to use a font mapping table to specify which font AutoCAD substitutes when it encounters a text object created with another font. Windows True Type Fonts are independent of AutoCAD resource folders; they belong to the operating system.

Attachments, overlays, full, relative and no Path. Post 14 in series “AutoCAD Cleanup”

External References. Basic concepts

Data sets in AutoCAD are a collection of all files that are needed to produce graphic output for an entire project or its subsets.
It may contain various file types: drawing files, image files, font files, shape files, plot style files and other types of linked files.
Drawing files (.DWG) of the same data set are usually linked to each other forming a hierarchical XREF structure.
To understand and be able to manipulate the dataset structure you need to know the properties of XREF links.

Attachment VS Overlay

AutoCAD uses two types of DWG references: attachments and overlays

xr1

All XREFs that are linked (attached or overlaid) directly to the parent file are visible in that file.

The second (and any subsequent) tier XREFs are only visible if they are attachments. In the schema below you will only see XREF1, XREF2, XREF3 and XREF5 from the PLOT file.

xr2

An easy way to remember: attachments are babies – they follow their parents. Overlays are teenagers – they never go with their parents.

Full Path, Relative Path and No Path.

XREFs and image files can be linked to master files using full path, relative path or no path.
Full path can be compared to a street address; it is an exact location of the XREF or attached image on your system. It includes server name or mapped drive name.

path-image

path-xref

Relative path is like point-to-point directions from the parent file to its reference. It finds the reference based on the location the parent file. The relative path says: go several levels up the directory tree (usually to where the directory tree starts branching) then from that point go to the location indicated after the last “..”
In the following example the parent file is plot.dwg. The location of plot.dwg in the folder structure is shown on the picture on the left. All references (XREFs and images) are stored at ..EX4drawingsrefarch folder.

path1

The relative path to REF1 and REF2 from the location of plot.dwg takes us two levels up to the EX4drawings folder, then from there to ..refarch.

path2

This method makes the data sets portable because the path does not contain server name or mapped drive name.. In other words, if I copy the entire EX4drawings folder to any other location (CD, DVD or any network location), plot.dwg finds its references.
If no path is selected, AutoCAD will first look for XREFs and images in the same folder as the parent file, then in the search path folders. The support search paths, working search paths and project search paths are user profile specific and can be set up in Options->Files. The search path folders could vary for different systems and profiles.

Layer reconciliation. Post 13 in series “AutoCAD Cleanup”

New in AutoCAD 2008 and AutoCAD 2009

in AutoCAD 2008 and 2009 you may have seen the following warning

layers-recon1

These messages are produced by layer reconciliation feature.

If layer reconciliation is enabled, when you first open any file in Autocad 2008-2009, the layer baseline list is created in the file. Next time you open the same file, AutoCAD compares the current layer list with the baseline saved in the drawing and if any “new” layers are found it marks them “unreconciled” and groups them into special filter. You can the select the unreconciled ayers and right click to reconcile them(approve). This feature can be very useful in a collaborative environment with extensive usage of XREFs. But like anything new, it takes time to get used to.

Let’s take a look at the settings (variables) which control the behavior of the layer reconciliation

LAYEREVALControls when the Unreconciled New Layer filter list in the Layer Properties Manager is created/evaluated for new layers.
 Type: Integer
 Saved in: Drawing
 Initial value: 1 for 2008 and 0 for 2009
 When LAYEREVAL is set to 1 or 2, layer baseline is created. When LAYEREVAL is set to 0, the Unreconciled New Layer filter is hidden and new layers are not evaluated.
 LAYERNOTIFY Specifies when an alert displays for new layers that have not yet been reconciled.
 Type: Bitcode. To calculate the value of bitcode variable, add all desired options.
 Saved in: Drawing
 Initial value: 15 for 2008 and 0 for 2009

If the LAYEREVAL ≠ 0 and value of LAYERNOTIFY is odd, you will also get the following dialog box that will require you to click Yes or No every time you plot or add a drawing to Publish. It can disrupt your plotting/ publishing workflow.

layers-recon2

2009 has an additional variable:

LAYEREVALCTL Controls the overall unreconciled new layer filter list in the Layer Properties Manager which is evaluated for new layers.This system variable also affects whether the new layer notification is displayed or not.
 Type: Binary
 Saved in: registry
 Initial value: 1
0 Disables the evaluation and notification of new layers
 1 Enables the evaluation of new layers on LAYEREVAL settings in DWG file
 Note: LAYEREVALCTL overrides the LAYEREVAL and LAYERNOTIFY setvars when LAYEREVALCTL = 0. It acts like a global off (but not a global on). There is no effect even if LAYEREVALCTL is turned on if LAYERNOTIFY = 0 or LAYEREVAL = 0. LAYEREVALCTL must be set to 1 for LAYERNOTIFY and LAYEREVAL to function correctly.

Note: Initial setting for both LAYEREVAL and LAYERNOTIFY is different for 2008 and 2009, thus users which skipped 2008 did not experience problems with layer reconciliation.

Following table illustrates the differences between 2008 and 2009 and where to set these variables in graphic interface.

2008

2009

laymng 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

laymng2009 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

layereval2008 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

layereval2009 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Solutions for 2008:

1. Use templates with desired settings for these variables when creating new files
2. Run script to re-set the variables in existing files.

LAYEREVAL 0
 QSAVE
 blank line

3. If planning to use the feature, reconcile layers once manually or by calling lisp or VBA program from the script

Solutions for 2009

1.Set LAYEREVALCTL=0. It is saved in the registry, so you will not need to go to every file and set LAYEREVAL 0
2. New option in –LAYER command
Run script to reconcile all layers. This will update the baseline. New layers will be evaluated

-LAYER E *
 blank line
  blank line
 QSAVE
 blank line

Layer cleanup scenarios. Post 12 in series “AutoCAD Cleanup”

Depending on the purpose of your cleanup, there may be variety of tasks that you need to perform with the layers:

Task 1.The objects in the drawing are not on the correct layers, and you need to sort them out.

This is a manual process which you have to perform on every file individually. Before you start cleaning up, save the layers state and export it to an external text file. This way you do not have to worry about restoring status quo if you make a mistake. In addition, do not forget about Layer Previous.

layer-previous

Most of the tools you need to sort the content into the correct layers are contaoned in LAYERSII toolbox

layers2

My favorite tool for individual layer diagnostic and cleanup is LAYWALK. LAYISO and LAYUNISO could be used as well.

If you can identify criteria for sorting elements to layers (for example: all red elements should go to layer RED, or all blocks – go to layer BLOCKS) you can script that process or at least use QSELECT or selection filters.

qselect

Task 2. You need to show/plot XREFs with different symbology (color, lineweight, linetype).

When you approach this task, there are several things to consider:

  • Are element properties (color, lineweight, linetype) of XREF files set ByLayer? If desired, you can use script to force ByLayer
  • What is the VISRETAIN variable setting in the parent(s) file? If desired, script set VISRETAIN
VISRETAIN is a variable which controls if the parent file “remembers” changes to XREF dependent layer properties between AutoCAD sessions. VISRETAIN is saved in the drawing.
 When VISRETAIN =1 in the parent file and you attach (or overlay) an XREF for the first time, AutoCAD creates an internal lookup table in the parent file. This table contains all XREF dependent layers names and their properties as read from the XREF at the time of attachment. When you change XREF dependent layer properties, the internal lookup table holds these changes (only if VISRETAIN =1). If you add layers to the XREF file, a new record with information about the new XREF layers will be added to the table when XREF is reloaded.
  • Are the XREFs already attached?
  • Do you expect updates for the XREFs? If yes, do you expect the layers to be consistent?

Example: Site.dwg is your architectural site plan (VISRETAIN=1). You attached Surv.dwg (survey data) to it and changed properties of all XREF dependent layers from Surv.dwg to gray thin lines (true color 120,120,120, lineweight 0.18mm). Later you receive an update from the surveyor, and there is a new layer “ParkingLOT” (blue, 0.35mm) in the updated Surv.dwg. When you substitute the old version of Surv.dwg with the new one, all XREF dependent layers except ParkingLOT will remain gray and thin, ParkingLOT will be blue and 0.35mm

If you now set VISRETAIN =0 in the Site.dwg, the lookup table will not be saved. Next time you open Site.dwg, the XREF dependent layers properties will be re-read from the XREF file. If you now set VISRETAIN =1 in the Site.dwg, it will not return to your gray thin lines, you will need to re-assign the properties again.
VISRETAIN controls all XREFs together, it cannot control individual XREFs.

When you have multiple similar files with multiple similar XREFs which have the similar file names and identical layer names, you can use some tricks to speed up repetitive tasks.

Super Trick: Say you are working on a hi-rise building (30 floors). File names for all floors follow the naming convention filename-NN.dwg where NN represents floor number. Layers names are identical for all floors.

The layers states (on/off, symbology and freeze status) should be similar for all floors. It would really save you a lot of time if you can set up the layer state for one floor, and then use it for the another 29. The problem is that XREF dependent layer names for different floors have different names because they contain the floor number.

Here is what you can do:

  • Set up the layers the way you want them for one of the floors; in this example, I use 01.
  • Name and save the layer state and export it to an external file Floor1.las
  • Open Floor1.las in any text editor and replace “-01” with “-02”, then save as Floor2.las
  • You now can import and apply Floor2.las to the second floor.

Task 3. You need to change layer properties without changing layer names.

Most common reason to change layer properties is to make them work with a different CTB.
You can use Standards Checker to automatically fix layer properties if the layer names are identical.
If you have a “good” drawing with the layers properties the way you want them, you can save it as a .dws file and use with Standards Checker (Tools->CAD Standards)
You may want to associate standards files with the drawings after they have been cleaned up to catch future deviations before they accumulate.

Task 4. You need to migrate the files from one layer naming standard to another.

The best AutoCAD tool for this job is Layer Translator.
LAYTRANS from command line or Tools->Cad Standards->Layer Translator from the menu.
Layer translator allows you to create a “translation table” which maps the layers from your file to the layers of another .dwg or .dws file. They can be saved and re-used on other files.

Tips on using LAYTRANS:

  • laytrans1Clean up Layer 0 and Defpoint layer first. Then Map same. That will take care of the layers with identical names
    Zoom Extents before you start Layer Translator.
  • In Settings check Show layer contents when selected. That will visually isolate selected layers display. Use Selection Filter if needed.
  • Map the layers that you can visually identify first. Save the Layer Translation Mappings. Translate.

Use LAYWALK and other layer tools as described in task1 to clarify and sort out messed up layers, then go back to translation

Limitations of LAYTRANS:

  • Works on one file at a time. Cannot batch translate multiple files.
    Even when all options are selected, the nested objects in blocks are NOT forced to color and linetype ByLayer. Use SETBYLAYER in AutoCAD2008-2009.
  • Missing features: options to Force object Lineweight and Plotstyle to ByLayer.
  • Can’t zoom in/out while in Layer Translator
  • Layer Descriptions will be lost in translation.

Using “Other Software” for batch processing of layers and other tasks

MicroStation translation tables are Excel files, and can be easily edited for such tasks as renaming layers by appending, pre-pending and partial name substitution. You can also force color, linetype and lineweight to ByLayer for the objects nested in blocks

Best of all, MicroStation can batch translate layers in multiple files. Use latest versions for compatibility with latest AutoCAD file format.

Potential problems to watch for while cleaning up layers

Special layers. No graphic elements should be on Layer 0 or Defpoints.

  • A layer is identified by its name, and when the name is changed, other files this file is referenced to (parent files) are not ”aware” of that change.
    If you change XREF dependent layer names, the XREF dependent layers properties specifically assigned in the parent file using VISRETAIN=1 will stop working.
    Similarly, when you rename XREF layers, the freeze and on/off (and for 2008 VP symbology settings) information in the plot sheet will be lost. In addition, this layer may need to be reconciled.
    If you use layer states and export them outside of your drawing file, after renaming the layers the exported layer states will be unusable.
  • Always keep in mind that color, lineweight and, in many cases, linetype and plot style for graphic objects are set to “ByLayer”, so any change to layer properties has to be coordinated with the plot style table you are going to use.
  • In previous versions of AutoCAD you could only assign VP Freeze to a layer. Now in addition you can assign VP Color, VP Linetype, VP Lineweight and, for the DWG of STB flavor, VP Plot style. In other words, your layers may look and plot differently in different viewports.

Layer0 and Defpoints . Post 11 in series “AutoCAD Cleanup”

Layer 0 and Defpoints layers are special. These layers should not to be used to create graphic content. Layer 0 should be used only to create block definitions, Defpoints layer is used by AutoCAD to create invisible definition points for other elements. These layers behave in a special way: they cannot be deleted and fall flat into the corresponding layer of a parent file when the file containing these layers is attached or overlaid to another file.

Example: A-Plan.dwg is a construction plan with walls drawn on layer 0 and M-Plan.dwg is a piping plan with hot water pipes drawn on its layer 0. A-Plan.dwg is overlaid into M-Plan.dwg to be used as a background. You want to see/plot walls as thin lines and pipes as thick lines. However you cannot separate layer 0 of parent M-Plan.dwg .dwg and A-Plan.dwg

The Defpoints layer behaves in a similar way. On earlier versions of AutoCAD many users learned to use the Defpoints layer as storage for elements they did not wish to plot (viewports, alignment lines, sometimes XREFs and such). However starting from AutoCAD 2000, any layer can have the non-plot property, and it is a good practice to create a special layer(s) to contain those elements.

It is best to start with cleaning up Layer 0 and Defpoints.

I wrote a little LISP routine to move all objects from Layer 0 to a new layer “from0”. After it is loaded, you can run it by typing “from0”at the command line.

(defun c:from0 ()
 (setq ssl0 (ssget “x” ‘((8 . “0″))))
 (COMMAND “-layer” “N” “from0″ “”)
 (COMMAND “chprop” ssl0 “” “la” “from0″ “”)
 )

You can also run it on multiple files using ScriptPro

However if you have graphic elements on the Defpoins layer, or do not want to dump everything from layer 0 into one layer, you will have to do it manually.

To identify objects on these layers, you can use LAYWALK (Express Tools in earlier releases). I will not duplicate the HELP file of LAYWALK here but suffice it to say that it is the most powerful tool for diagnosing layer problems and sorting them out. It can answer two questions:

  • What layers the objects are on?
  • What objects reside on these layers?

laywalk2

Undocumented trick: you can use your mouse wheel to ZOOM while in LAYWALK. Just click on Select by element, and wheel forward to zoom in, wheel back to zoom out, double click on a wheel to zoom extents, or press and drag to pan. When done navigating, press Escape to return to LAYWALK without change. Explore right-click menu.

Scale List cleanup . Post 10 in series “AutoCAD Cleanup”

From Scale List Cleanup Utility README.txt:

Description of Problem

When a file contains excess scales, performance may be negatively affected. Eventually, the file may become unusable. To use the file, some scales must be removed. This utility repairs affected files by removing excess scales.

NOTE: Nested external references (xrefs) may produce excess scales. To correct this problem, install AutoCAD 2008 Service Pack 1 or corresponding service packs for AutoCAD-based products. The Scale List Cleanup Utility repairs files affected before the necessary service pack was installed.

Affected Products

AutoCAD® 2008-based products, including DWG TrueViewTM 2008
AutoCAD 2009-based products, including DWG TrueView 2009

Not every scale containing “XREF” in its name is a bug. Legitimate” XREF scales:

  • When units are different
  • When proxy objects are present
  • When these scales are already used in page setups, viewports or anywhere else where scale is used.
  • When scale list in XREF contains scales or definitions which are not present in the parent file

How to clean:

  • Use Scale Cleanup Utility (download from Autodesk website)
  • Alternatively, add the following line (before Qsave line) to any of the cleanup scripts you run on your files:
-SCALELISTEDIT R Y E